Calender is the term used to describe several steel rolls, which are usually heated and between which materials are passed and thus “calendered”, i.e. smoothed, rolled, thinned etc.

Calendered paper

Calendering is also called “satin-finishing” in paper manufacturing. Paper is mechanically smoothed between the calender rolls to produce coated or uncoated paper. Calendering takes place under very high pressure and temperature.


CAT is short for Cromatic Adaptation Transform.
Chromatic adaptation means that the human eye performs an automated white balance. Colour is thus perceived quite independently of the colour temperature.


Committee for Graphic Arts Technologies Standards.
A standardization group that develops various standards for the US printing industry. The standards concern printing, colour conversion and much more.

Chromo board

Chromo board refers to a multi-layer type of cardboard with a coated, usually white front side and an uncoated back side. It is mainly used for packaging printing.

Chromo paper

One-side coated paper with excellent printability.


CIELAB or LAB is a mathematical colour model that has become established wherever exact colour calculations are required. Computer colour management usually works via CIELAB.


CMYK stands for the four printing inks Cyan, Magenta, Yellow and “Key” (Black) . These four inks are the base of four-color printing. For printing colorful photos at least these four inks are required.

Color proof

Color proofs (correct: contract proofs) are an ISO-certified test equipment for the graphic arts industry. Color proofs simulate the colorfulness of offset or gravure printing in a color and legally binding manner within the narrow tolerances of ISO 12647-7. Today, they are almost exclusively calculated using a RIP and then produced with inkjet printers on special proof papers.


A colour measuring device for measuring/comparing colours.
It is often used for the calibration of monitors or in biology/chemistry for analysis. More powerful devices, such as the spectrophotometer, can measure colours spectrally and are also used, among other things, for proofs to verify or calibrate printers.


Colorimetry, or colour theory, is the science of colour.
It is primarily concerned with an objective and measurable evaluation and definition of colour valences (the visual perception of colour), as well as their relationships to one another.

Colour cast

When a coloured image appears as if a coloured filter is placed over it, this is called a colour cast. In printing, this is caused by a poor gray balance.

Colour depth

Specifies how many different colour shades can be displayed.

Colour distance

The measured distance (colour difference) between two colours. The colour locations of the two colour values are displayed within a system and the difference is given in Delta-E.

Colour gamut

The colour gamut (or simply: gamut) refers to the range of all colours in a colour space that can be recognised (camera, scanner) or reproduced (printer, monitor) by a device.
It is visualised in the form of a colour solid.

Colour location

The colour location describes the position of a measured or selected colour within a colour space. This is often defined by coordinates, e.g. using L, a and b in the CIELab colour space.
The set of all the colour locations in a colour space is called the colour gamut (or gamut).

Colour management

With colour management it can be achieved that colours on different devices like cameras, scanners, monitors, laser, inkjet, offset printers and many more can be reproduced as similar as possible to each other.

Colour measurement

Colour measurement is used to determine the exact colour location of a colour in a colour system.

Colour mode

The colour mode is a setting that determines the depth to which colours can be displayed in an image file. This also affects the size of the file.
The most common colour modes are RGB, CMYK, Lab, Index mode, Greyscale and Bitmap.

Colour model

A colour model (or colour system) is an abstract mathematical method for determining and specifying colours and their relationship to each other.
It is sometimes referred to as colour space, although the latter is the concrete application of a colour model to a colour-producing method (printer, monitor, etc.).

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